覚えていられない、いつも使うパッケージ~R

  • PCを変えたら、Rのバージョンが遅れていてパッケージインストールがエラーになった
  • 少し前までは、Rをアップデートして、インストールしておくべきパッケージの基本リストがすぐに思い出せたけれど、ヒトの名前もすぐには出てこないこの頃…、全然、パッケージ名を思い出せない!
  • というわけでメモ
  • Rをアップデートしたら、ひとまず回そう、パッケージインストール用関数
  • このコマンドを入れておくと、紐づいたパッケージ等もあれやこれや入るので、それについては"library()"関数で表示させれば、確認できる。Rstudioを使えば"Packages"パネルに同様の情報が見られる
  • コマンドはgistにファイルで上げておこう(忘れるから…)

library()
  • 結果
abind                   Combine Multidimensional Arrays
askpass                 Safe Password Entry for R, Git, and SSH
assertthat              Easy Pre and Post Assertions
backports               Reimplementations of Functions Introduced Since
                        R-3.0.0
base64enc               Tools for base64 encoding
BH                      Boost C++ Header Files
brew                    Templating Framework for Report Generation
callr                   Call R from R
car                     Companion to Applied Regression
carData                 Companion to Applied Regression Data Sets
cellranger              Translate Spreadsheet Cell Ranges to Rows and
                        Columns
cli                     Helpers for Developing Command Line Interfaces
clipr                   Read and Write from the System Clipboard
clisymbols              Unicode Symbols at the R Prompt
coda                    Output Analysis and Diagnostics for MCMC
colorspace              A Toolbox for Manipulating and Assessing Colors
                        and Palettes
commonmark              High Performance CommonMark and Github Markdown
                        Rendering in R
covr                    Test Coverage for Packages
crayon                  Colored Terminal Output
crosstalk               Inter-Widget Interactivity for HTML Widgets
curl                    A Modern and Flexible Web Client for R
data.table              Extension of `data.frame`
desc                    Manipulate DESCRIPTION Files
devtools                Tools to Make Developing R Packages Easier
digest                  Create Compact Hash Digests of R Objects
DT                      A Wrapper of the JavaScript Library
                        'DataTables'
e1071                   Misc Functions of the Department of Statistics,
                        Probability Theory Group (Formerly: E1071), TU
                        Wien
ellipsis                Tools for Working with ...
evaluate                Parsing and Evaluation Tools that Provide More
                        Details than the Default
fansi                   ANSI Control Sequence Aware String Functions
farver                  High Performance Colour Space Manipulation
fastmap                 Fast Implementation of a Key-Value Store
forcats                 Tools for Working with Categorical Variables
                        (Factors)
fs                      Cross-Platform File System Operations Based on
                        'libuv'
geometry                Mesh Generation and Surface Tessellation
ggplot2                 Create Elegant Data Visualisations Using the
                        Grammar of Graphics
gh                      'GitHub' 'API'
git2r                   Provides Access to Git Repositories
glue                    Interpreted String Literals
gmp                     Multiple Precision Arithmetic
gtable                  Arrange 'Grobs' in Tables
haven                   Import and Export 'SPSS', 'Stata' and 'SAS'
                        Files
highr                   Syntax Highlighting for R Source Code
hms                     Pretty Time of Day
htmltools               Tools for HTML
htmlwidgets             HTML Widgets for R
httpuv                  HTTP and WebSocket Server Library
httr                    Tools for Working with URLs and HTTP
igraph                  Network Analysis and Visualization
ini                     Read and Write '.ini' Files
jsonlite                A Robust, High Performance JSON Parser and
                        Generator for R
knitr                   A General-Purpose Package for Dynamic Report
                        Generation in R
labeling                Axis Labeling
later                   Utilities for Scheduling Functions to Execute
                        Later with Event Loops
lazyeval                Lazy (Non-Standard) Evaluation
lifecycle               Manage the Life Cycle of your Package Functions
linprog                 Linear Programming / Optimization
lme4                    Linear Mixed-Effects Models using 'Eigen' and
                        S4
lpSolve                 Interface to 'Lp_solve' v. 5.5 to Solve
                        Linear/Integer Programs
magic                   Create and Investigate Magic Squares
magrittr                A Forward-Pipe Operator for R
manipulateWidget        Add Even More Interactivity to Interactive
                        Charts
maptools                Tools for Handling Spatial Objects
markdown                Render Markdown with the C Library 'Sundown'
matlib                  Matrix Functions for Teaching and Learning
                        Linear Algebra and Multivariate Statistics
Matrix                  Sparse and Dense Matrix Classes and Methods
MatrixModels            Modelling with Sparse And Dense Matrices
mcmc                    Markov Chain Monte Carlo
MCMCpack                Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) Package
memoise                 Memoisation of Functions
mime                    Map Filenames to MIME Types
miniUI                  Shiny UI Widgets for Small Screens
minqa                   Derivative-free optimization algorithms by
                        quadratic approximation
munsell                 Utilities for Using Munsell Colours
nloptr                  R Interface to NLopt
numbers                 Number-Theoretic Functions
onion                   Octonions and Quaternions
openssl                 Toolkit for Encryption, Signatures and
                        Certificates Based on OpenSSL
openxlsx                Read, Write and Edit xlsx Files
partitions              Additive Partitions of Integers
pbkrtest                Parametric Bootstrap and Kenward Roger Based
                        Methods for Mixed Model Comparison
permutations            The Symmetric Group: Permutations of a Finite
                        Set
pillar                  Coloured Formatting for Columns
pkgbuild                Find Tools Needed to Build R Packages
pkgconfig               Private Configuration for 'R' Packages
pkgload                 Simulate Package Installation and Attach
plyr                    Tools for Splitting, Applying and Combining
                        Data
polynom                 A Collection of Functions to Implement a Class
                        for Univariate Polynomial Manipulations
pracma                  Practical Numerical Math Functions
praise                  Praise Users
prettyunits             Pretty, Human Readable Formatting of Quantities
processx                Execute and Control System Processes
progress                Terminal Progress Bars
promises                Abstractions for Promise-Based Asynchronous
                        Programming
ps                      List, Query, Manipulate System Processes
purrr                   Functional Programming Tools
quantreg                Quantile Regression
R6                      Encapsulated Classes with Reference Semantics
rcmdcheck               Run 'R CMD check' from 'R' and Capture Results
RColorBrewer            ColorBrewer Palettes
Rcpp                    Seamless R and C++ Integration
RcppEigen               'Rcpp' Integration for the 'Eigen' Templated
                        Linear Algebra Library
RcppProgress            An Interruptible Progress Bar with OpenMP
                        Support for C++ in R Packages
readr                   Read Rectangular Text Data
readxl                  Read Excel Files
rematch                 Match Regular Expressions with a Nicer 'API'
remotes                 R Package Installation from Remote
                        Repositories, Including 'GitHub'
reshape2                Flexibly Reshape Data: A Reboot of the Reshape
                        Package
rex                     Friendly Regular Expressions
rgl                     3D Visualization Using OpenGL
rio                     A Swiss-Army Knife for Data I/O
rlang                   Functions for Base Types and Core R and
                        'Tidyverse' Features
Ronlyryamada            What the Package Does (one line, title case)
roxygen2                In-Line Documentation for R
rprojroot               Finding Files in Project Subdirectories
rstudioapi              Safely Access the RStudio API
rsvd                    Randomized Singular Value Decomposition
rversions               Query 'R' Versions, Including 'r-release' and
                        'r-oldrel'
scales                  Scale Functions for Visualization
sessioninfo             R Session Information
sets                    Sets, Generalized Sets, Customizable Sets and
                        Intervals
shiny                   Web Application Framework for R
sourcetools             Tools for Reading, Tokenizing and Parsing R
                        Code
sp                      Classes and Methods for Spatial Data
SparseM                 Sparse Linear Algebra
stringi                 Character String Processing Facilities
stringr                 Simple, Consistent Wrappers for Common String
                        Operations
sys                     Powerful and Reliable Tools for Running System
                        Commands in R
testthat                Unit Testing for R
tibble                  Simple Data Frames
tidyselect              Select from a Set of Strings
usethis                 Automate Package and Project Setup
utf8                    Unicode Text Processing
vctrs                   Vector Helpers
viridisLite             Default Color Maps from 'matplotlib' (Lite
                        Version)
webshot                 Take Screenshots of Web Pages
whisker                 {{mustache}} for R, Logicless Templating
withr                   Run Code 'With' Temporarily Modified Global
                        State
xfun                    Miscellaneous Functions by 'Yihui Xie'
xml2                    Parse XML
xopen                   Open System Files, 'URLs', Anything
xtable                  Export Tables to LaTeX or HTML
yaml                    Methods to Convert R Data to YAML and Back
zeallot                 Multiple, Unpacking, and Destructuring
                        Assignment
zip                     Cross-Platform 'zip' Compression
 
 パッケージ (ライブラリ ‘C:/Program Files/R/R-3.6.2/library’ 中): 

base                    The R Base Package
boot                    Bootstrap Functions (Originally by Angelo Canty
                        for S)
class                   Functions for Classification
cluster                 "Finding Groups in Data": Cluster Analysis
                        Extended Rousseeuw et al.
codetools               Code Analysis Tools for R
compiler                The R Compiler Package
datasets                The R Datasets Package
foreign                 Read Data Stored by 'Minitab', 'S', 'SAS',
                        'SPSS', 'Stata', 'Systat', 'Weka', 'dBase', ...
graphics                The R Graphics Package
grDevices               The R Graphics Devices and Support for Colours
                        and Fonts
grid                    The Grid Graphics Package
KernSmooth              Functions for Kernel Smoothing Supporting Wand
                        & Jones (1995)
lattice                 Trellis Graphics for R
MASS                    Support Functions and Datasets for Venables and
                        Ripley's MASS
Matrix                  Sparse and Dense Matrix Classes and Methods
methods                 Formal Methods and Classes
mgcv                    Mixed GAM Computation Vehicle with Automatic
                        Smoothness Estimation
nlme                    Linear and Nonlinear Mixed Effects Models
nnet                    Feed-Forward Neural Networks and Multinomial
                        Log-Linear Models
parallel                Support for Parallel computation in R
rpart                   Recursive Partitioning and Regression Trees
spatial                 Functions for Kriging and Point Pattern
                        Analysis
splines                 Regression Spline Functions and Classes
stats                   The R Stats Package
stats4                  Statistical Functions using S4 Classes
survival                Survival Analysis
tcltk                   Tcl/Tk Interface
tools                   Tools for Package Development
translations            The R Translations Package
utils                   The R Utils Package

正多角形を敷き詰めて正多角形の穴を作る

  • 同じ形のタイルで2次元平面を敷き詰める「タイリング」はいろいろやられている
  • 正多角形でそれをやろうとすると、正三角形、正四角形、正六角形でできることも知られている
  • ちょっと問題を変形してみよう
  • いろいろな辺の数・頂点の数を持つ正多角形のタイルがあったとする
  • すべての正多角形の辺長は同じであるとする
  • それを連結していって、いつの間にかぐるりと回ってぴたりと合わさるのはどういう場合なのだろうか、という問題
  • もしも同じ正多角形だけをピースとするとすると、正三角形・正四角形・正六角形の場合だけらしい
  • Rでやってみる
    • 正多角形の外角が、\pi - \frac{2\pi}{d}であること、正多角形を並べると、それが作る折れ線には正多角形の2頂点分の角度が加わることを使って、試してみる。そして、出来上がる穴がやはり正多角形であることも使う
    • そうすると、ピースがk正多角形だとして,p多角形の穴ができるとすると
    • \sum_{i=1}^p (1-\frac{2}{k}) = 2
    • いろいろなkについてpを解いたときにpが自然数になれば「成功」
  • 穴を特別視しているけれど、結局、正多角形によるタイリングの問題の変形に過ぎない問題
  • ただし、これを3次元での閉多面体的タイリングにするとなると、ちょっと(?)難しくなる